Monthly Archives: April 2012

Alexander Leidinger

In case you have not noticed yet, KDTRACE_HOOKS is now in the GENERIC kernel in FreeBSD-current. This means you just need to load the DTrace modules and can use DTrace with the GENERIC kernel.

In case you do not know what you can do with DTrace, take the time to have a look at the DTrace blog. It is worth any minute you invest reading it.


IPv6 Performance Analysis Project Completed

Earlier this year the FreeBSD Foundation announced that together with iXsystems it had awarded Bjoern Zeeb a grant to analyze the performance of FreeBSD's Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) stack.

FreeBSD is well known as a network stack reference and research platform. With the expanding installed base of IPv6 systems throughout the world, more focus was brought to making sure that the IPv6 subsystem remained at performance parity with its IPv4 counterpart.

"'IP feature parity' is what our users expect.  Closing the gap between IPv6 and IPv4 in terms of performance has become more important as IPv6 is seeing a significant increase in public deployments", says Bjoern Zeeb. "This will help to keep the resource usage at the same level as traffic patterns shift towards IPv6."

One feature that received special attention was hardware assisted offload support: Large/TCP Segment Offload (LSO/TSO) and Large Receive Offload (LRO).  Getting the basic support done was very important, as it allows FreeBSD, together with network card vendors, to further improve performance. IPv6 Extension Headers can be taken into account when defining new interfaces and improved basic network packet data types will ease offload implementations in all network card drivers in the future.

Having offload support in the network stack immediately helps loopback performance. Turning on "offloading" for IPv6 avoids expensive calculation and validation of upper layer (TCP and UDP) checksums.

With IPv6, TCP performance is now basically on par with IPv4 in the offloading case, allowing 10 Gbps line speed connections. This is a huge step forward.  UDP throughput has increased and is closer to the level of IPv4. Changes to locking allowing better parallelism, which is a step in the right direction.

Initial numbers showing the differences of the work can be found here.

"I'd love to thank the FreeBSD Foundation and iXsystems for sponsoring the project and hope that it will help the community deploying IPv6" closes Bjoern.

Auditdistd Project Completed

The auditdistd project is complete. Pawel Jakub Dawidek provides the following report regarding the project:

I'm happy to report that the auditdistd project I was working under sponsorship from the FreeBSD Foundation is complete.


Since recent (with the very great help of Ion-Mihai Tetu, a fellow FreeBSD committer and developer for dspam) we (JR-Hosting) are running our anti-spam infrastructure on DSPAM. We stopped using SpamAssassin after some testing and resolving problems. The interesting fact is that we share most directories through nullfs so that both the webjail and the mailjail share data and our users are able to modify settings, see their stats etc. Very great and after overcoming our issues (local delivery was not OK in the beginning and the webjail was not able to properly use the MySQL database backend at first, which was odd because the main system WAS looking into it and the webjail wasn’t), it works just fine. Ofcourse it is still learning but it seems that it finds spam efficiently and quick, and it’s footprint is much much lower then SpamAssassin was. I might want to figure out how to run the daemonized version as per advise of Ion-Mihai, till then it works as a deliveryagent.

I am writing a ‘hosting environment howto’ (or something that will largely look like that) in which I will write about the setup as well.

[XORG-DEV] trunk is unstable

Dear All,
As I mentioned already in twitter/fb, our xorg-dev/trunk repo is currently
completely unstable because we are trying now to get xorg 7.7 RC ready. Our
wiki page will be updated soon. Testers and feedback are welcomed, but
please make sure you know what you are doing. If you like to discuss with
us directly, please join us on irc efnet/#freebsd-xorg.

– Martin

Please welcome Xorg 7.5.2

The Xorg Team is pleased to announce the next round of Xorg updates.
The team created a new flag called WITH_NEW_XORG that users can include
in /etc/make.conf. This was created for the intel KMS work being done
althouthough It probably works for other chips. Unfortunately, the intel
KMS driver will only work on FreeBSD 9(RELENG|STABLE) or 10/HEAD users.
Older version of FreeBSD will not be supported. Intel users will need
to patch their source manually with Konstantin’s KMS kernel patch to get
the newer chips to work. Please carefully read UPDATING entry.


– libdrm 2.4.31 (including KMS support)
– mesa 7.11.2
– xorg-server 1.10.6
– a lot of new Graphic Drivers.

I would like to thank:

Koop Mast
Eitan Adler
Niclas Zeising
and all helpers and testers from x11@.

FreeBSD on ARM devices

Damjan Marion published nice how-to for getting FreeBSD running on BeagleBone. Using it I managed to get my PandaBoard ES running off SD card. The only modifications to this instructions are:

  • Use PANDABOARD kernel config. Stock version is configured to use NFS so it should be modified to use SD card as root.
  • MLO and u-boot.bin binaries are different. I used these. You'll need boot.scr too.

Performance is still affected by using write-through caches by default, but this issue should be fixed soon.

boot log:

U-Boot SPL 2011.09-rc2 (Oct 06 2011 - 17:56:54)
Texas Instruments OMAP4460 ES1.1
reading u-boot.img
reading u-boot.bin
mkimage signature not found - ih_magic = ea000014
Assuming u-boot.bin ..
reading u-boot.bin

U-Boot 2011.09-rc2 (Oct 06 2011 - 17:56:54)

CPU  : OMAP4430
Board: OMAP4 Panda
I2C:   ready
DRAM:  1 GiB
WARNING: Caches not enabled
Using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Net:   No ethernet found.
Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0
reading uEnv.txt

** Unable to read "uEnv.txt" from mmc 0:1 **
reading boot.scr

133 bytes read
Loaded script from boot.scr
Running bootscript from mmc0 ...
## Executing script at 82000000
reading kernel.bin

3634616 bytes read
## Starting application at 0x80200000 ...
initarm: console initialized
 arg1 mdp = 0x00000000
 boothowto = 0x00000000
 dtbp = 0xc0552060
kernel image addresses:
 kernbase       = 0xc0000000
 _etext (sdata) = 0xc04cb00c
 _edata         = 0xc05775b8
 __bss_start    = 0xc05775b8
 _end           = 0xc0595ef4
loader passed (static) kenv:
 no env, null ptr
processing avail regions:
 80000000-c0000000 -> 80000000-80200000 = 200000
 8064b000-c0000000 -> 8064b000-c0000000 = 3f9b5000
fill in phys_avail:
 region: 0x80000000 - 0x80200000 (0x00200000)
 region: 0x8064b000 - 0xc0000000 (0x3f9b5000)
KDB: debugger backends: ddb
KDB: current backend: ddb
Copyright (c) 1992-2012 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
	The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of The FreeBSD Foundation.
FreeBSD 10.0-CURRENT #123 r234390:234445M: Wed Apr 18 20:15:54 PDT 2012
    gonzo@bsdbox:/src/FreeBSD/obj/armv6/arm.arm/src/FreeBSD/armv6/sys/PANDABOARD arm
CPU: Cortex A9-r2 rev 10 (Cortex-A core)
 Supported features: ARM_ISA THUMB2 JAZELLE THUMBEE ARMv4 Security_Ext
 WB disabled EABT branch prediction enabled
LoUU:2 LoC:1 LoUIS:2 
Cache level 1: 
 32KB/32B 4-way data cache WB Read-Alloc Write-Alloc
 32KB/32B 4-way instruction cache Read-Alloc
real memory  = 1073741824 (1024 MB)
avail memory = 1046401024 (997 MB)
Texas Instruments OMAP4430 Processor, Revision ES2.3
random device not loaded; using insecure entropy
simplebus0: <Flattened device tree simple bus> on fdtbus0
gic0: <ARM Generic Interrupt Controller> mem 0xe8241000-0xe8241fff,0xe8240100-0xe82401ff on simplebus0
gic0: pn 0x390, arch 0x1, rev 0x2, implementer 0x43b nirqs 160
l2cache0: <PL310 L2 cache controller> mem 0xe8242000-0xe8242fff on simplebus0
  L2 Cache: 1024KB/32B 16 ways
mp_tmr0: <ARM Generic MPCore Timers> mem 0xe8240200-0xe82402ff,0xe8240600-0xe82406ff irq 27,29 on simplebus0
Timecounter "ARM MPCore Timecouter" frequency 504000000 Hz quality 1000
Event timer "ARM MPCore Eventtimer" frequency 504000000 Hz quality 1000
uart0: <16750 or compatible> mem 0xe8020000-0xe8020fff irq 106 on simplebus0
uart0: console (115384,n,8,1)
ti_scm0: <TI Control Module> mem 0xd4e6a000-0xd4e6afff on simplebus0
setting internal 4 for usbb1_ulpiphy_stp
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_clk
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dir
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_nxt
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat0
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat1
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat2
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat3
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat4
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat5
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat6
setting internal 10c for usbb1_ulpiphy_dat7
omap4_prcm0: <TI OMAP Power, Reset and Clock Management> mem 0xd4e6b000-0xd4e6cfff,0xd4e6d000-0xd4e6dfff,0xd4e6e000-0xd4e75fff on simplebus0
gpio0: <TI General Purpose I/O (GPIO)> mem 0xd4e76000-0xd4e76fff,0xe8055000-0xe8055fff,0xe8057000-0xe8057fff,0xe8059000-0xe8059fff,0xe805b000-0xe805bfff,0xe805d000-0xe805dfff irq 61,62,63,64,65,66 on simplebus0
gpioc0: <GPIO controller> on gpio0
gpiobus0: <GPIO bus> on gpio0
ehci0: <TI OMAP USB 2.0 controller> mem 0xd4e77c00-0xd4e77cff,0xd4e78000-0xd4e786ff,0xd4e79000-0xd4e79fff irq 109 on simplebus0
ehci0: Starting TI EHCI USB Controller
ehci0: UHH revision 0x50700100
ehci0: OMAP_UHH_SYSCONFIG: 0x00000014
ehci0: UHH setup done, uhh_hostconfig=0x8000001c
usbus0: EHCI version 1.0
usbus0: <TI OMAP USB 2.0 controller> on ehci0
iichb0: <TI I2C Controller> mem 0xe8070000-0xe80700ff irq 88 on simplebus0
iichb0: I2C revision 4.0
iicbus0: <OFW I2C bus> on iichb0
iic0: <I2C generic I/O> on iicbus0
twl0: <TI TWL4030/TWL5030/TWL60x0/TPS659x0 Companion IC> on iicbus0
twl_vreg0: <TI TWL4030/TWL5030/TWL60x0/TPS659x0 Voltage Regulators> on twl0
ti_sdma0: <TI sDMA Controller> mem 0xd4e7a000-0xd4e7afff irq 44,45,46,47 on simplebus0
ti_sdma0: sDMA revision 00010900
ti_mmchs0: <TI MMC/SD/SDIO High Speed Interface> mem 0xe809c000-0xe809cfff irq 115 on simplebus0
mmc0: <MMC/SD bus> on ti_mmchs0
Timecounters tick every 10.000 msec
usbus0: 480Mbps High Speed USB v2.0
twl0: Found (sub)device at 0x48
twl0: Found (sub)device at 0x49
twl0: Found (sub)device at 0x4a
twl0: Found (sub)device at 0x4b
ugen0.1: <Texas Instruments> at usbus0
uhub0: <Texas Instruments EHCI root HUB, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 1> on usbus0
mmcsd0: 1886MB <SD Memory Card> at mmc0 30MHz/4bit
Root mount waiting for: usbus0
Root mount waiting for: usbus0
uhub0: 3 ports with 3 removable, self powered
Root mount waiting for: usbus0
ugen0.2: <vendor 0x0424> at usbus0
uhub1: <vendor 0x0424 product 0x9514, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 2> on usbus0
Root mount waiting for: usbus0
uhub1: 5 ports with 4 removable, self powered
ugen0.3: <vendor 0x0424> at usbus0
smsc0: <vendor 0x0424 product 0xec00, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 3> on usbus0
Trying to mousmsc0: chip 0xec00, rev. 0001
nt root from ufs:mmcsd0s2 []...
miibus0: <MII bus> on smsc0
ukphy0: <Generic IEEE 802.3u media interface> PHY 1 on miibus0
ukphy0:  none, 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
ue0: <USB Ethernet> on smsc0
ue0: Ethernet address: 42:b5:1b:92:2f:fa
warning: no time-of-day clock registered, system time will not be set accurately
Setting hostuuid: 498c0afe-89d4-11e1-b9b6-42b51b922ffa.
Setting hostid: 0x0b54866b.
No suitable dump device was found.
Entropy harvesting: interrupts ethernet point_to_point kickstart.
Starting file system checks:
/dev/mmcsd0s2: clean, 405764 free (1988 frags, 50472 blocks, 0.4% fragmentation)
Mounting local file systems:.
Setting hostname: pandaboard.
smsc0: chip 0xec00, rev. 0001
ue0: link state changed to DOWN
Starting Network: lo0 ue0.
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 16384
	inet netmask 0xff000000 
ue0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500
	ether 42:b5:1b:92:2f:fa
	media: Ethernet autoselect (none)
	status: no carrier
Starting devd.
ue0: link state changed to UP
Starting dhclient.
Can't find free bpf: No such file or directory
/etc/rc.d/dhclient: WARNING: failed to start dhclient
Generating host.conf.
Waiting 30s for the default route interface: .............................
Creating and/or trimming log files.
Starting syslogd.
/etc/rc: WARNING: Dump device does not exist.  Savecore not run.
ELF ldconfig path: /lib /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat
Clearing /tmp (X related).
Updating motd:.
Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
fc:fa:d4:6c:ca:d3:c2:c5:ff:7c:05:e1:50:0c:5f:27 root@pandaboard
The key's randomart image is:
+--[RSA1 1024]----+
|            .+E o|
|            ..oo.|
|             o.. |
|       .      o  |
|        S  .   . |
|         . oo   .|
|         .oo+.  .|
|         ++o. ...|
|        ..+o   .+|
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
cd:16:3a:62:b7:9d:b0:4d:48:c3:93:d1:4a:6a:4f:56 root@pandaboard
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ DSA 1024]----+
|        ..       |
|       ..oE      |
|       o*o.      |
|      o.+B .     |
|     .o+S =      |
|     . o.X .     |
|        o +      |
|                 |
|                 |
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
6b:03:e0:ef:28:66:01:cc:76:8a:88:70:f8:9b:a6:f2 root@pandaboard
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|                 |
|                 |
|o.  .            |
|++.o .           |
|*+o . . S        |
|+.o  . . .       |
|   +  . +        |
|. B  o . .       |
|o*E.. .          |
Generating public/private ecdsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
e4:aa:df:df:d4:9d:19:83:42:79:79:18:b0:b8:cc:27 root@pandaboard
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ECDSA  256]---+
|           ...   |
|          . o +  |
|        .. + + . |
|       oo o . o  |
|        SE o . o |
|       .  o .. .=|
|      .     . .o.|
|     . .   o     |
|    ... ... .    |
Starting sshd.
Starting cron.
Starting background file system checks in 60 seconds.

Thu Apr 19 04:03:17 UTC 2012

FreeBSD/arm (pandaboard) (ttyu0)

login: root
Apr 19 04:03:23 pandaboard login: ROOT LOGIN (root) ON ttyu0
FreeBSD 10.0-CURRENT (PANDABOARD) #123 r234390:234445M: Wed Apr 18 20:15:54 PDT 2012

Welcome to FreeBSD!

Before seeking technical support, please use the following resources:

o  Security advisories and updated errata information for all releases are
   at - always consult the ERRATA section
   for your release first as it's updated frequently.

o  The Handbook and FAQ documents are at and,
   along with the mailing lists, can be searched by going to  If the doc package has been installed
   (or fetched via pkg_add -r lang-freebsd-doc, where lang is the
   2-letter language code, e.g. en), they are also available formatted
   in /usr/local/share/doc/freebsd.

If you still have a question or problem, please take the output of
`uname -a', along with any relevant error messages, and email it
as a question to the [email protected] mailing list.  If you are
unfamiliar with FreeBSD's directory layout, please refer to the hier(7)
manual page.  If you are not familiar with manual pages, type `man man'.

Edit /etc/motd to change this login announcement.

pandaboard# uname -a
FreeBSD pandaboard 10.0-CURRENT FreeBSD 10.0-CURRENT #123 r234390:234445M: Wed Apr 18 20:15:54 PDT 2012     gonzo@bsdbox:/src/FreeBSD/obj/armv6/arm.arm/src/FreeBSD/armv6/sys/PANDABOARD  arm

9-STABLE-20120418 Testing Snapshot Available

Kris has just announced the availability of the first testing snapshot for the upcoming 9.1 release. This snapshot can be downloaded from here.

NOTE: This snapshot is only available for 64-bit systems. Also, if you need the new GEM/KMS support provided in the previous snapshot, do not install this new snapshot on your main system as that support has been removed, pending its commital to FreeBSD. If you need that support and would like to test the new snapshot, test it in a virtual environment.

The wiki is gradually being updated with the new installer and Warden information and those sections will change over the next few days to match the capabilities of this snapshot.

From the announcement:

The PC-BSD team is pleased to make available the first public 9-STABLE snapshot for 64bit systems!

This snapshot provides both users and developers a means to test out new features in the upcoming PC-BSD 9.1 release. This snapshot may contain buggy code and features, so users are encouraged to run it only on non-critical systems.


  • FreeBSD 9-STABLE from 4-11-2012
  • New system installer! Greatly simplified for desktop and server installs.
  • New “PC-BSD Server

FreeBSD 8.3-RELEASE Available

FreeBSD 8.3-RELEASE is now available. Please be sure to check the Release Notes and Release Errata before installation for any late-breaking news and/or issues with 8.3. More information about FreeBSD releases can be found on the Release Information page.

Alexander Leidinger

This weekend I made some progress in the linuxulator:

  • I MFCed the reporting of some linux-syscalls to 9-stable and 8-stable.
  • I updated my linuxulator-dtrace patch to a recent -current. I already compiled it on i386 and arundel@ has it compiled on amd64. I counted more than 500 new DTrace probes. Now that DTrace rescans for SDT probes when a kernel module is loaded, there is no kernel panic anymore when the linux module is loaded after the DTrace modules and you want to use DTrace. I try to commit this at a morning of a day where I can fix things during the day in case some problems show up which I did not notice during my testing.
  • I created a PR for portmgr@ to repocopy a new linux_base port.
  • I set the expiration date of linux_base-fc4 (only used by 7.x and upstream way past its EoL) and all dependent ports. It is set to the EoL of the last 7.x release, which can not use a later linux_base port. I also added a comment which explains that the date is the EoL of the last 7.x release.


Report from AsiaBSDCon

The FreeBSD Foundation was a Platinum Sponsor of AsiaBSDCon which was held in Tokyo, Japan from March 22-25. Hiroki Sato, the General Chair of the conference, provided the following status report.

AsiaBSDCon 2012, the 7th BSD conference in Asia, was held on March 22-25, 2012, in Tokyo, Japan.  This conference consists of 4 days: a 2-day tutorial/meeting session and a 2-day paper session.  There were 8 tutorials (6 in English and 2 in Japanese) and the number of students were 4-20 for each.  The paper session had 11 papers and 1 keynote. The number of attendees was 105.

This year's keynote was "Embedded Technology and BSD UNIX in Japan" by Shozo Takeoka, the founder of AXE, Inc., a vendor which provides custom-ordered network equipment based on BSD, middleware for cellphones, embedded BSD, and embedded Linux to major home appliance and digital camera manufacturers in Japan.

In the 2-day meeting session George Neville-Neil and I held a half-day Vendor Summit.  About 30 people attended the session and talks were given in English and Japanese by George (past Vendor Summmit), myself (Foundation), Brooks Davis (toolchain), Michal Dubiel (Semihalf), Masaru Oki (Internet Initiative Japan), and Shozo Takeoka (what and why of BSD-BA).  Shozo Takeoka, myself, and others are planning to set up an organization "BSD-BA (BSD Business Association)", a Japanese BSD consortium.

Overall, everything went well.  And it is notable that there have been several moves to improve the situation of Japanese vendors using BSD.  I am also working towards this goal and will keep the Foundation up-to-date.

The tentative date for the next AsiaBSDCon is March 14-17, 2013.